Rapid advances in technology in Artificial Intelligence(AI) influence work and workplace. In this study, we aimed to investigate how employees’ perceptions about AI’s competence impact their job insecurity and work cynicism. In an experimental study (Study 1) using a sample of 214 Korean employees, we found that employee’s perception of AI’s competence increased work cynicism via increased job insecurity. In Study 2 using a sample of 242 American workers, we revealed that the employee’s judgment on AI’s competence positively related to work cynicism, and job insecurity partly mediated the relationship. As hypothesized, the moderating role of work meaningfulness was found; The mediation was stronger for those with a high level of work meaningfulness than those with a low level of work meaningfulness. Also, the mediating effect of job insecurity was moderated by work meaningfulness in the relationship between perceived competence of AI and work cynicism. We discussed implications, limitations and recommendations for future research.